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The Jewish Liturgical Calendar
Jewish Year, Beginning Rosh HaShanah 5779 [Civil Year 2018–2019]

The Jewish cycle of readings from the Torah and the Prophets
is central to the liturgical and religious life of Jews.
A brief explanation of the readings is outlined below. LINK
See Readings tables for Jewish Years: 5776 5777 5778 5779

Date Event Torah Maftir Haftarah
1 Tishrei
10th September 2018
Rosh HaShanah I, 5779
ראש השנה
Gen. 21:1-34
maf. Num. 29:1-6
1 Sam. 1:1–2:10
2 Tishrei
11th September 2018
Rosh HaShanah II
ראש השנה
Gen. 22:1-24
maf. Num. 29:1-6
Jer. 31:1-19
3 Tishrei
12th September 2018
Tzom Gedaliah
[Fast of Gedaliah]
יום גדליה
Fast Day
Ex. 32:11-14; 34:1-10 [am & pm]
Isa. 55:6–56:8 [pm]
[No Haftarah for Sephardim]
 
6 Tishrei
15th September 2018
Parashat VaYelekh
Shabbat Shuva
פרשת וילך, שבת שובה
Deut. 31:1-30
Hos. 14:2-10; Mic. 7:18-20; Joel 2:15-27
[Hos. 14:2-10; Mic. 7:18-20]
9 Tishrei
18th September 2018
erev Yom Kippur
ערב יום הכיפור
10 Tishrei
19th September 2018
Yom Kippur
[Day of Atonement]
יום הכיפור, יום הכיפורים‎
Lev. 16:1-34 [am]  
Lev. 18:1-30 [pm]
maf. Num. 29:7-11
Isa. 57:14–58:14 [am]
Book of Jonah
Micah 7:18-20 [pm]
13 Tishrei
22nd September 2018
Parashat Ha'azinu
פרשת האזינו
Deut. 32:1-522 Sam. 22:1-51
14 Tishrei
23rd September 2018
Erev Sukkot
ערב סוכות
15 Tishrei
24th September 2018
Sukkot I
סוכות א׳
Lev. 22:26–23:44
maf. Num. 29:12-16
Zech. 14:1-21
16 Tishrei
25th September 2018
Sukkot II
סוכות ב׳
Sukkot is celebrated over seven days [Eight in the Diaspora.] The first two days of Sukkot are a major holidays [Yom Tov] in the Diaspora and are followed by the Festival "weekdays" called Chol HaMoed. In Israel the Chol HaMoed begin on Sukkot Day II.
Lev. 22:26–23:44
maf. Num. 29:12-16
1 Kgs. 8:2-21
17 Tishrei
26th September 2018
Sukkot III
[Chol HaMoed I]
סוכות ג׳, חל המועד א׳
Num. 29:17-25
18 Tishrei
27th September 2018
Sukkot IV
[Chol HaMoed II]
סוכות ד׳, חל המועד ב׳
Num. 29:20-28
19 Tishrei
28th September 2018
Sukkot V
[Chol HaMoed III]
סוכות ה׳, חל המועד ג׳
Num. 29:23-31
20 Tishrei
29th September 2018
Sukkot VI
[Shabbat Chol HaMoed]
סוכות שבת חל המועד
Ex. 33:12–34:26
maf. Num. 29:26-31
Ezek. 38:18–39:16
21 Tishrei
30th September 2018
Sukkot VII
[Hoshanah Rabbah]
סוכות ז׳ הושנא רבה
Num. 29:26-34
22 Tishrei
1st October 2018
Shemini Atzeret
שמיני עצרת
Deut. 14:22–16:17
maf. Num. 29:35–30:1
1 Kgs. 8:54-66
22 Tishrei
1st October 2018
erev Simhat Torah
ערב שמחת תורה
In most Jewish communities the Torah is read at night on Simhat Torah. [This is the only time when the Torah is read at night.] There are various customs regarding which Torah sections are read, although many select Vezot Haberachah, the last weekly portion on the Torah, omitting the last verses.
Deut. 33:1-17
[or 33:1-26]
Customs may vary.
23 Tishrei
2nd October 2018
Simhat Torah
[Rejoicing in the Torah]
שמחת תורה
Simchat Torah is a celebration marking the conclusion of the annual cycle of public Torah readings and the beginning of a new cycle. In Israel, Simhat Torah and Shemini Atzeret are celebrated on the same day.
Deut. 33:1–34:12
Gen. 1:1–2:3
maf. Num. 29:35–30:1
Josh. 1:1-18
[Josh. 1:1-9]
27 Tishrei
6th October 2018
Parashat Bereshit
פרשת בראשית
Gen. 1:1–6:8
Isa. 42:5–43:10
[Isa. 42:5-21]
30 Tishrei
9th October 2018
Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan
ראש חודש חשון
Num. 28:1-15
1 Cheshvan
10th October 2018
Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan
ראש חודש חשון
Num. 28:1-15
4 Cheshvan
13th October 2018
Parashat Noach
פרשת נח
Gen. 6:9–11:32
Isa. 54:1–55:5
[Isa. 54:1-10]
11 Cheshvan
20th October 2018
Parashat Lekh Lekha
פרשת לך-לך
Gen. 12:1–17:27Isa. 40:27–41:16
18 Cheshvan
27th October 2018
Parashat Vayera
פרשת וירא
Gen. 18:1–22:24
2 Kgs. 4:1-37
[2 Kgs. 4:1-23]
25 Cheshvan
3rd November 2018
Parashat Chayei Sarah
פרשת חיי שרה
Gen. 23:1–25:18
1 Kgs. 1:1-31
30 Cheshvan
8th November 2018
Rosh Chodesh Kislev
ראש חודש כסלו
Num. 28:1-15
1 Kislev
9th November 2018
Rosh Chodesh Kislev
ראש חודש כסלו
Num. 28:1-15
2 Kislev
10th November 2018
Parashat Toledot
פרשת תולדות
Gen. 25:19–28:9Mal. 1:1–2:7
9 Kislev
17th November 2018
Parashat Vayetze
פרשת ויצא
Gen. 28:10–32:3
Hos. 12:13–14:10
Opt. subst. Mic. 7:18
[Hos. 11:7–12:12]
16 Kislev
24th November 2018
Parashat Vayishlach
פרשת וישלח
Gen. 32:4–36:43
Obad. 1:1-21
Opt. Hos. 11:7–12:12
[Obad. 1:1-21]
23 Kislev
1st December 2018
Parashat Vayeshev
פרשת וישב
Gen. 37:1–40:23Amos 2:6–3:8
24 Kislev
2nd December 2018
Erev Chanukah
חנוכה ערב
25 Kislev
3rd December 2018
Chanukah I
חנוכה א׳
Num. 7:1-17
26 Kislev
4th December 2018
Chanukah II
חנוכה ב׳
Num. 7:18-29
27 Kislev
5th December 2018
Chanukah III
חנוכה ג׳
Num. 7:24-35
28 Kislev
6th December 2018
Chanukah IV
חנוכה ד׳
Num. 7:30-41
29 Kislev
7th December 2018
Chanukah V
חנוכה ה׳
Num. 7:36-47
30 Kislev
8th December 2018
Parashat Miketz Rosh Chodesh
Shabbat Chanukah VI Rosh Chodesh
פרשת מקץ חנוכה
Gen. 41:1–44:17
Num. 28:9-15
maf. Num. 7:42-47   
Zech. 2:14–4:7
1 Tevet
9th December 2018
Chanukah VII
Rosh Chodesh Tevet
חנוכה ז׳, ראש חודש טבת
Num. 28:1-15
maf. Num. 7:48-53
2 Tevet
10th December 2018
Chanukah VIII
חנוכה ט׳
Num. 7:54–8:4
7 Tevet
15th December 2018
Parashat Vayigash
פרשת ויגש
Gen. 44:18–47:27Ezek. 37:15-28
10 Tevet
18th December 2018
Asara B’Tevet
[The Tenth of Tevet]
עשרה בטבת‎
[Minor Fast Day]
Ex. 32:11-14; 34:1-10
Isa. 55:6–56:8 [pm]
[No haftarah for Sephardim]
14 Tevet
22nd December 2018
Parashat Vayechi
פרשת ויחי
Gen. 47:28–50:261 Kgs. 2:1-12
21 Tevet
29th December 2018
Parashat Shemot
פרשת שמות
Ex. 1:1–6:1
Isa. 27:6–28:13; 29:22-23
[Jer. 1:1–2:3]
28 Tevet
5th January 2019
Parashat Vaera
פרשת וארא
Ex. 6:2–9:35Ezek. 28:25–29:21
1 Shevat
7th January 2019
Rosh Chodesh Shevat
ראש חודש שבט
Num. 28:1-15
6 Shevat
12th January 2019
Parashat Bo
פרשת בא
Ex. 10:1–13:16Jer. 46:13-28
13 Shevat
19th January 2019
Parashat Beshalach
פרשת בשלח
Ex. 13:17–17:16
Judg. 4:4–5:31
[Judg. 5:1-31]
15 Shevat
21st January 2019
Tu B’Shvat
[The Fifteenth of Sh'vat]
New Year for Trees
ט״ו בשבט‎; ראש השנה לאילנות
[Minor Jewish Holiday]
20 Shevat
26th January 2019
Parashat Yitro
פרשת יתרו
Ex. 18:1–20:23
Isa. 6:1–7:6; 9:5-6
[Isa. 6:1-13]
27 Shevat
2nd February 2019
Parashat Mishpatim
פרשת משפטים
Ex. 21:1–24:18Jer. 34:8-22; 33:25-26
30 Shevat
5th February 2019
Rosh Chodesh Adar I
ראש חודש אדר א׳
Num. 28:1-15
1 Adar I
6th February 2019
Rosh Chodesh Adar I
ראש חודש אדר א׳
Num. 28:1-15
4 Adar I
9th February 2019
Parashat Terumah
פרשת תרומה
Ex. 25:1–27:191 Kgs. 5:26–6:13
11 Adar I
16th February 2019
Parashat Tetzaveh
פרשת תצוה
Ex. 27:20–30:10Ezek. 43:10-27
14 Adar I
19th February 2019
Purim Katan
פורים קטן
In leap years Purim is celebrated in Adar II. Purim Katan is a minor Purim celebration celebrated in Adar I in Leap years.
18 Adar I
23rd February 2019
Parashat Ki Tisa
פרשת כי תשא
Ex. 30:11–34:35
1 Kgs. 18:1-39
[1 Kgs. 18:20-39]
25 Adar I
2nd March 2019
Parashat Vayakhel
Shabbat Shekalim
פרשת ויקהל
Ex. 35:1–38:20
maf. Ex. 30:11-16
2 Kgs. 12:1-17
[2 Kgs. 11:17–12:17]
30 Adar I
7th March 2019
Rosh Chodesh Adar II
ראש חודש אדר ב׳
Num. 28:1-15
1 Adar II
8th March 2019
Rosh Chodesh Adar II
ראש חודש אדר ב׳
Num. 28:1-15
2 Adar II
9th March 2019
Parashat Pekudei
פרשת פקודי
Ex. 38:21–40:38
1 Kings 7:51–8:21
[1 Kings 7:40-50]
9 Adar II
16th March 2019
Parashat Vayikra
Shabbat Zachor
פרשת ויקרא, שבת זכור
Lev. 1:1–5:26
maf. Deut. 25:17-19
1 Sam. 15:2-34
[1 Sam. 15:1-34]
13 Adar II
20th March 2019
Ta’anit Esther
[Fast of Esther]
erev Purim
תענית אסתר
[Minor Fast Day]
Ex. 32:11-14; 34:1-10 [am & pm]
Isa. 55:6–56:8 [pm]
[No Haftarah for Sephardim]
14 Adar II
21st March 2019
Purim
פורים
Ex. 17:8-16
15 Adar II
22nd March 2019
Shushan Purim
שושן פורים
Shushan Purim is celebrated in Jerusalem and walled cities.  
16 Adar II
23rd March 2019
Parashat Tzav
פרשת צו
Lev. 6:1–8:36
Jer. 7:21–8:3; 9:22–9:23
23 Adar II
30th March 2019
Parashat Shemini
Shabbat Parah
פרשת שמיני, שבת פרה
Lev. 9:1–11:47
maf. Num. 19:1-22
Ezek. 36:16-38
[Ezek: 36:16-36]
1 Nisan
6th April 2019
Parashat Tazria
Shabbat HaChodesh
פרשת תזריע, שבת החודש
Lev. 12:1–13:59
maf. Ex. 12:1-20
Ezek. 45:16–46:18
[Ezek. 45:18–46:15]
8 Nisan
13th April 2019
Parashat Metzorah
Shabbat HaGadol
פרשת מצרע, שבת החודש
Lev. 14:1–15:33
Mal. 3:4-24
14 Nisan
19th April 2019
Ta’anit Bechorot
[Fast of the Firstborn]
תענית בכורות‎ ,תענית בכורים
Fast Day [for the Firstborn]
Ex. 32:11–34:10
14 Nisan
19th April 2019
Erev Pesach
ערב פסח
15 Nisan
20th April 2019
Pesach I
פסח שבת
Ex. 12:21-51
maf. Num. 28:16-25
Josh. 3:5-7; 5:2–6:1, 27
[Josh. 5:2–6:1, 27]
16 Nisan
21st April 2019
Pesach II
פסח ב׳
Lev. 22:2623, 44
maf. Num. 28:16-25
2 Kgs. 23:1-9, 21-25
17 Nisan
22nd April 2019
Pesach III
[Chol HaMoed I]
פסח ג׳, חל המועד א׳
Ex. 13:1-16
maf. Num. 28:19-25
18 Nisan
23rd April 2019
Pesach IV
[Chol HaMoed II]
פסח ד׳, חל המועד ב׳
Ex. 22:24–23:19
maf. Num. 28:19-25
19 Nisan
24th April 2019
Pesach V
[Chol HaMoed III]
פסח ה׳, חל המועד ג׳
Ex. 34:1-26
maf. Num. 28:19-25
20 Nisan
25th April 2019
Pesach VI
[Chol HaMoed IV]
פסח ו׳, חל המועד ד׳
Num. 9:1-14
maf. Num. 28:19-25
21 Nisan
26th April 2019
Pesach VII
פסח ז׳
Ex. 13:17–15:26
maf. Num. 28:19-25
2 Sam. 22:1-51
22 Nisan
27th April 2019
Pesach VIII Shabbat
פסח ח׳, שבת
Deut. 14:2216:17
maf. Num. 28:19-25
Isa. 10:32–12:6
27 Nisan
2nd May 2019
Yom HaShoah
[Holocaust and Heroism Remembrance Day]
יום השואה, יום הזיכרון לשואה ולגבורה
29 Nisan
4th May 2019
Parashat Aharei Mot
פרשת אחרי מות
Lev. 16:1–18:30
Ezek. 22:1-19
[Ezek. 22:1-16]
30 Nisan
5th May 2019
Rosh Chodesh Iyar
ראש חודש אייר
Num. 28:1-15
1 Iyar
6th May 2019
Rosh Chodesh Iyar
ראש חודש אייר
Num. 28:1-15
3 Iyar
8th May 2019
Yom HaZikaron
[Israeli Remembrance Day]
יום הזיכרון, יום הזיכרון לחללי מערכות ישראל ולנפגעי פעולות האיבה‎
[Israeli Fallen Soldiers and Victims of Terrorism Remembrance Day]
4 Iyar
9th May 2019
Yom Ha’Atzmaut
[Israel Independence Day]
יום העצמאות‎
Deut. 7:12–8:18
Isa. 10:32–12:6
13 Iyar
18th May 2019
Parashat Emor
פרשת אמור
Lev. 21:1–24:23Ezek. 44:15-31
14 Iyar
19th May 2019
Pesach Sheini
פסח שני
Pesach Sheini is a special celebration of Passover which is celebrated exactly one month after Passover. Its historical purpose was to allow those who for special reason where not able to bring the Passover sacrifice on the correct date to have a second opportunity to do so. The celebration is mentioned in the Torah (Num. 9:1-14).
18 Iyar
23rd May 2019
Lag Ba’Omer
[33rd Day in the Omer]
ל״ג בעומר
Lag B'Omer or Lag L'Omer is a holiday marking the 33rd day of the Counting of the Omer and falls on the 18th day of Iyar.
20 Iyar
25th May 2019
Parashat Behar
פרשת בהר
Lev. 25:1–26:2Jer. 32:6-27
28 Iyar
2nd June 2019
Yom Yerushalayim
[Jerusalem Day]
יום ירושלים‎
1 Sivan
4th June 2019
Rosh Chodesh Sivan
ראש חודש סיון
Num. 28:1-15
5 Sivan
8th June 2019
Parashat Bamidbar
erev Shavuot
פרשת במדבר
Num. 1:1–4:20Hos. 2:1-22
5 Sivan
8th June 2019
erev Shavuot
ערב שבועות
6 Sivan
9th June 2019
Shavuot I
שבועות
Ex. 19:1–20:23
maf. Num. 28:26-31
Ezek. 1:1-28; 3:12
7 Sivan
10th June 2019
Shavuot II
שבועות
Deut. 15:19–16:17
maf. Num. 28:26-31
Hab. 3:1-19
[Hab. 2:20–3:19]
12 Sivan
15th June 2019
Parashat Naso
פרשת נשא
Num. 4:21–7:89Judg. 13:2-25
19 Sivan
22nd June 2019
Parashat Beha'alotkha
פרשת בהעלתך
Num. 8:1–12:16
Zech. 2:14–4:7
26 Sivan
29th June 2019
Parashat Shelach Lekha
פרשת שלח־לך
Num. 13:1–15:41Josh. 2:1-24
30 Sivan
3rd July 2019
Rosh Chodesh Tammuz
ראש חודש תמוז
Num. 28:1-28
1 Tammuz
4th July 2019
Rosh Chodesh Tammuz
ראש חודש תמוז
Num. 28:1-28
3 Tammuz
6th July 2019
Parashat Korach
פרשת קורח
Num. 16:1–18:321 Sam. 11:14–12:22
10 Tammuz
13th July 2019
Parashat Chukat
פרשת חקת
Num. 19:1–22:1Judg. 11:1-33
17 Tammuz
20th July 2019
Parashat Balak
פרשת בלק
Num. 22:2–25:9Micah 5:6–6:8
18 Tammuz
21st July 2019
Tzom Tammuz
[17th Tammuz - Shiv'ah Asar b'Tammuz]
צום תמוז, שבעה עשר בתמוז‎
[Minor Fast Day]
Ex. 32:11-14; 34:1-10 [am & pm]
Isa. 55:6–56:8 [pm]
[No Haftarah for Sephardim]
24 Tammuz
27th July 2019
Parashat Pinchas
1st Haftarah Admonition
פרשת פינחס
Num. 25:10–30:1
1st Haftarah of Admonition
Jer. 1:1–2:3
1 Av
2nd August 2019
Rosh Chodesh Av
ראש חודש אב
Num. 28:1-15
2 Av
3rd August 2019
Parashat Matot-Masei
2nd Haftarah Admonition
פרשת מטות-מסעי
Num. 30:2–36:13
2nd Haftarah of Admonition
Jer. 2:4-28; 3:4
[Jer. 2:4-28; 4:1-2]
9 Av
10th August 2019
Parashat Devarim
[Sabbath of Vision]
Shabbat Chazon
3rd Haftarah Admonition
פרשת דברים, שבת חזון
Deut. 1:1–3:22
3rd Haftarah of Admonition
Isa. 1:1-27
9 Av
10th August 2019
erev Tisha B'Av
תשעה באב
The Book of Lamentations
[The Book of Job may be read also.]
10 Av
11th August 2019
Tisha B'Av
[The Ninth of Av]
ט׳ באב, תשעה באב‎
[Fast Day]
Deut. 4:25-40 [am]
Ex. 32:11-14; 34:1-10 [pm]
Jer. 8:13–9:23 [am]
Isa. 55:6-56:8 [pm]
[Hos. 14:2-10; Micah 7:18-20]
15 Av
16th August 2019
Tu B’Av
[The Fifteenth of Av]
ט"ו באב
[Minor Jewish Holiday]
16 Av
17th August 2019
Parashat Va’etchanan
Shabbat Nachamu
1st Haftarah Consolation
פרשת ואתחנן, שבת נחמו
Deut. 3:23–7:11
1st Haftarah of Consolation
Isa. 40:1-26
23 Av
24th August 2019
Parashat Ekev
2nd Haftarah Consolation
פרשת עקב
Deut. 7:12–11:25
2nd Haftarah of Consolation
Isa. 49:14–51:3
30 Av
31st August 2019
Parashat Re'eh
3rd Haftarah Consolation
Rosh Chodesh Elul
פרשת ראה, ראש חודש
Deut. 11:26–16:17
maf. Num. 28:9-15
3rd Haftarah of Consolation
Isa. 54:11–55:5
[In some congregations,
Isa. 66:1-24]
1 Elul
1st September 2019
Rosh Chodesh Elul
ראש חודש אלול
In the Sephardic tradition, recital of Selichot in preparation for the High Holidays begins on the second day of the Hebrew month of Elul.
In the Ashkenazic tradition, Selichot begin on the Saturday night before Rosh Hashanah.
Num. 28:1-15
7 Elul
7th September 2019
Parashat Shofetim
4th Haftarah Consolation
פרשת שופטים
Deut. 16:18–21:9
4th Haftarah of Consolation
Isa. 51:12–52:12
14 Elul
14th September 2019
Parashat Ki Tetze
5th Haftarah Consolation
פרשת כי-תצא
Deut. 21:10–25:19
5th Haftarah of Consolation
Isa. 54:1-10
21 Elul
21st September 2019
Parashat Ki Tavo
6th Haftarah Consolation
Shabbat Selichot [Ashkenazim]
פרשת כי-תבוא
Selichot prayers begin on the Saturday night before Rosh HaShanah for Ashkenazim. If, however, the first day of Rosh HaShanah falls on Monday or Tuesday, Selichot are said beginning the Saturday night prior.
Deut. 26:1–29:8
6th Haftarah of Consolation
Isa. 60:1-22
28 Elul
28th September 2019
Parashat Nitzavim
7th Haftarah Consolation
פרשת נצבים-וילך
Selichot prayers begin on the Saturday night before Rosh HaShanah for Ashkenazim. If, however, the first day of Rosh HaShanah falls on Monday or Tuesday, Selichot are said beginning the Saturday night prior.
Deut. 29:9–31:30
7th Haftarah of Consolation
Isa. 61:10–63:9
29 Elul
29th September 2019
Erev Rosh HaShanah
ערב ראש השנה
 

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A brief explanation of the Jewish cycle of readings

The Parashat Hashavuah—The Portion of the Week
The Jewish yearly cycle of Torah readings is divided into weekly portions. Each portion—in Hebrew, a parashah—is part of a sequential reading of the Torah [aka. The Five Books of Moses, The Chumash, or the Pentateuch] so that the whole of the Torah is read within a yearly cycle. [Some Jewish communities follow a Triennial Torah reading cycle.1]

In the table above the Parashat Hashavuah is listed with its accompanying Haftarah reading. The name of the parashah [portion] is taken from the first words of the parashah. There are 54 weekly portions—one for each year of the Jewish leap year. In non-leap years [50 weeks] portions are paired and read together.

The table above, beginning with Rosh Hashanah—the first day of the Jewish year—follows the Ashkenazic tradition for Torah and Haftarah readings and completes the entire reading cycle within one year. Communities who read the Parashat Hashavuah over three years will read a section from each parashah each week.

The Haftarah
The haftarah is a reading from the Prophets and adds a reflection to the parashah. While each parashah normally has its own accompanying haftarah reading, the haftarah reading also varies, during the year, according to special festivals or events. The word haftarah comes from the Hebrew root pey.tet.resh, meaning “concluding”, “parting” or “ending.”

The practice of adding a haftarah reading to the Torah portion is ancient and has obscure origins. The Talmud mentions the haftarah being read in the presence of Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus (c. 70 CE) and evidence from the New Testament indicates that the haftarah readings were a common practice. Acts 13:15 states, "After the reading from the Law and the Prophets the leaders of the synagogue sent word to them saying..."

Haftarah readings given in brackets in the above table indicate readings used in the Shephardic tradition where these differ from the Ashkenazic reading.

The Maftir
The word maftir, which belongs to the same Hebrew root as haftarah [pey.tet.resh] means “concluder” and refers to the last person called [i.e., the last Aliyah (aliyah, “to go up”)] to the Torah of the succession of readers at a Sabbath morning or holiday service. This person normally reads the haftarah. The maftir reading normally repeats the last words of the parashat hashavuah. This is according to an ancient custom which sort to honor the greater importance of the Torah over the Prophetic reading (Talmud, Megillah 23a). On special Sabbaths and holidays a special reading is added [provided in the table above] which is related to the celebration or event.

A Point of interest: The division of parashot [sometimes spelled and pronounced, Parshiot or Parshiyot: the plural of parashah] found in the modern-day Torah scrolls of all Jewish communities (Ashkenazic, Sephardic, and Yemenite) is based upon the systematic list provided by Maimonides in Mishneh Torah, Laws of Tefillin, Mezuzah and Torah Scrolls, Ch. 8. Maimonides based his division of the portions of the Torah on the Aleppo Codex.

1. The Triennial Torah Reading Cycle. In some traditions the cycle of Torah readings is completed over three years—this pattern is modelled on an ancient Rabbinic tradition in Israel [which may in fact be even older] in which each portion was divided into three parts, each part being read in sequence over the course of three years thus completing the reading of the five books of the Torah over three years. This practice has been revived in some Jewish congregations today.

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