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The Jewish Liturgical Calendar
Jewish Year, Beginning Rosh HaShanah 5775 [Civil Year 2014–2015]

The Jewish cycle of readings from the Torah and the Prophets
is central to the liturgical and religious life of Jews.
A brief explanation of the readings is outlined below. LINK
See Readings tables for Jewish Years: 5772 5773 5774 5775

Date Event Torah Maftir Haftarah
1 Tishrei
25th September 2014
Rosh HaShanah I
ראש השנה
Gen. 21:1-34
maf. Num. 29:1-6
1 Sam. 1:1–2:10
2 Tishrei
26th September 2014
Rosh HaShanah II
ראש השנה
Gen. 22:1-24
maf. Num. 29:1-6
Jer. 31:1-19
3 Tishrei
27th September 2014
Parashat Ha'azinu
[Sabbath of Repentance, Sabbath of Return]
Shabbat Shuva
פרשת האזינו, שבת שובה
Deut. 32:1-52
Hos. 14:2-10, Mic. 7:18-20, Joel 2:15-27
4 Tishrei
28th September 2014
Tzom Gedaliah
[Fast of Gedaliah]
יום גדליה
Fast Day
Ex. 32:11-14; 34:1-10 [am & pm]
Isa. 55:6–56:8 [pm]
[No Haftarah for Sephardim]
 
9 Tishrei
3rd October 2014
erev Yom Kippur
ערב יום הכיפור
10 Tishrei
4th October 2014
Yom Kippur
[Day of Atonement]
יום הכיפור, יום הכיפורים‎
Lev. 16:1-34 [am]  
Lev. 18:1-30 [pm]
maf. Num. 29:7-11
Isa. 57:14–58:14 [am]
Book of Jonah
Micah 7:18-20 [pm]
14 Tishrei
8th October 2014
Erev Sukkot
ערב סוכות
15 Tishrei
9th October 2014
Sukkot I
סוכות א׳
Lev. 22:26–23:44
maf. Num. 29:12-16
Zech. 14:1-21
16 Tishrei
10th October 2014
Sukkot II
סוכות ב׳
Sukkot is celebrated over seven days [Eight in the Diaspora.] The first two days of Sukkot are a major holidays [Yom Tov] in the Diaspora and are followed by the Festival "weekdays" called Chol HaMoed. In Israel the Chol HaMoed begin on Sukkot Day II.
Lev. 22:26–23:44
maf. Num. 29:12-16
1 Kgs. 8:2-21
17 Tishrei
11th October 2014
Sukkot Shabbat
[Shabbat Chol HaMoed]
סוכות שבת חל המועד
Ex. 33:12–34:26
maf. Num. 29:17-22
Ezek. 38:18–39:16
18 Tishrei
12th October 2014
Sukkot IV
[Chol HaMoed II]
סוכות ד׳, חל המועד ב׳
Num. 29:20-28
19 Tishrei
13th October 2014
Sukkot V
[Chol HaMoed III]
סוכות ה׳, חל המועד ג׳
Num. 29:23-31
20 Tishrei
14th October 2014
Sukkot VI
[Chol HaMoed IV]
סוכות ו׳, חל המועד ד׳
Num. 29:26-34
21 Tishrei
15th October 2014
Sukkot VII
[Hoshanah Rabbah]
סוכות ז׳ הושנא רבה
Num. 29:26-34
22 Tishrei
16th October 2014
Shemini Atzeret
שמיני עצרת
Deut. 14:22–16:17
maf. Num. 29:35–30:1
1 Kgs. 8:54-66
22 Tishrei
16th October 2014
erev Simhat Torah
ערב שמחת תורה
In most Jewish communities the Torah is read at night on Simhat Torah. [This is the only time when the Torah is read at night.] There are various customs regarding which Torah sections are read, although many select Vezot Haberachah, the last weekly portion on the Torah, omitting the last verses.
Deut. 33:1-17
[or 33:1-26]
Customs may vary.
23 Tishrei
17th October 2014
Simhat Torah
[Rejoicing in the Torah]
שמחת תורה
Simchat Torah is a celebration marking the conclusion of the annual cycle of public Torah readings and the beginning of a new cycle. In Israel, Simhat Torah and Shemini Atzeret are celebrated on the same day.
Deut. 33:1–34:12
Gen. 1:1–2:3
maf. Num. 29:35–30:1
Josh. 1:1-18   
[Josh. 1:1-9]
24 Tishrei
18th October 2014
Parashat Bereshit
פרשת בראשית
Gen. 1:1–6:8
Isa. 42:5–43:10
[Isa. 42:5-21]
30 Tishrei
24th October 2014
Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan
ראש חודש חשון
[When a Hebrew month has 30 days Rosh Chodesh is traditionally celebrated over two days — the 30th of the old month and 1st of the new month.]
Num. 28:1-15
1 Cheshvan
25th October 2014
Parashat Noach
Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan
פרשת נח
Gen. 6:9–11:32
maf. Num. 28:9-15
Isa. 66:1-24
8 Cheshvan
1st November 2014
Parashat Lekh Lekha
פרשת לך-לך
Gen. 12:1–17:27Isa. 40:27–41:16
15 Cheshvan
8th November 2014
Parashat Vayera
פרשת וירא
Gen. 18:1–22:24
2 Kgs. 4:1-37
[2 Kgs. 4:1-23]
22 Cheshvan
15th November 2014
Parashat Chayei Sarah
פרשת חיי שרה
Gen. 23:1–25:18
1 Kgs. 1:1-31
29 Cheshvan
22nd November 2014
Parashat Toledot
Shabbat Machar Chodesh
פרשת תולדות, שבת מחר חודש
[Sabbath before Rosh Chodesh]
Gen. 25:19–28:91 Sam. 20:18-42
1 Kislev
23rd November 2014
Rosh Chodesh Kislev
ראש חודש כסלו
Num. 28:1-15
7 Kislev
29th November 2014
Parashat Vayetze
פרשת ויצא
Gen. 28:10–32:3
Hos. 12:13–14:10   
Opt. subst. Mic. 7:18
[Hos. 11:7–12:12]
14 Kislev
6th December 2014
Parashat Vayishlach
פרשת וישלח
Gen. 32:4–36:43
Obad. 1:1-21   
Opt. Hos. 11:7–12:12
[Obad. 1:1-21]
21 Kislev
13th December 2014
Parashat Vayeshev
פרשת וישב
Gen. 37:1–40:23Amos 2:6–3:8
24 Kislev
16th December 2014
Erev Chanukah
חנוכה ערב
25 Kislev
17th December 2014
Chanukah I
חנוכה א׳
Num. 7:1-17
26 Kislev
18th December 2014
Chanukah II
חנוכה ב׳
Num. 7:18-29
27 Kislev
19th December 2014
Chanukah III
חנוכה ג׳
Num. 7:24-35
28 Kislev
20th December 2014
Parashat Miketz
Shabbat Chanukah IV
פרשת מקץ חנוכה
Gen. 41:1–44:17   
maf. Num. 7:30-35
Zech. 2:14–4:7
29 Kislev
21st December 2014
Chanukah V
חנוכה ה׳
Num. 7:36-47
30 Kislev
22nd December 2014
Chanukah VI
Rosh Chodesh Tevet
חנוכה ו׳, ראש חודש טבת
[When a Hebrew month has 30 days Rosh Chodesh is traditionally celebrated over two days — the 30th of the old month and 1st of the new month.]
Num. 28:1-15
maf. Num. 7:42-47
1 Tevet
23rd December 2014
Chanukah VII
Rosh Chodesh Tevet
חנוכה ז׳, ראש חודש טבת
Num. 28:1-15
maf. Num. 7:48-53
2 Tevet
24th December 2014
Chanukah VIII
חנוכה ט׳
Num. 7:54–8:4
5 Tevet
27th December 2014
Parashat Vayigash
פרשת ויגש
Gen. 44:18–47:27Ezek. 37:15-28
10 Tevet
1st January 2015
Asara B’Tevet
[The Tenth of Tevet]
עשרה בטבת‎
[Minor Fast Day]
Ex. 32:11-14; 34:1-10
Isa. 55:6–56:8 [pm]
[No haftarah for Sephardim]
12 Tevet
3rd January 2015
Parashat Vayechi
פרשת ויחי
Gen. 47:28–50:261 Kgs. 2:1-12
19 Tevet
10th January 2015
Parashat Shemot
פרשת שמות
Ex. 1:1–6:1
Isa. 27:6–28:13; 29:22-23
[Jer. 1:1–2:3]
26 Tevet
17th January 2015
Parashat Vaera
פרשת וארא
Ex. 6:2–9:35Ezek. 28:25–29:21
1 Shevat
21st January 2015
Rosh Chodesh Shevat
ראש חודש שבט
Num. 28:1-15
4 Shevat
24th January 2015
Parashat Bo
פרשת בא
Ex. 10:1–13:16Jer. 46:13-28
11 Shevat
31st January 2015
Parashat Beshalach
פרשת בשלח
Ex. 13:17–17:16
Judg. 4:4–5:31
[Judg. 5:1-31]
15 Shevat
4th February 2015
Tu B’Shvat
[The Fifteenth of Sh'vat]
New Year for Trees
ט״ו בשבט‎; ראש השנה לאילנות
[Minor Jewish Holiday]
18 Shevat
7th February 2015
Parashat Yitro
פרשת יתרו
Ex. 18:1–20:23
Isa. 6:1–7:6; 9:5-6
[Isa. 6:1-13]
25 Shevat
14th February 2015
Parashat Mishpatim
Shabbat Shekalim
פרשת משפטים, שבת שקלים
Ex. 21:1–24:18   
maf. Ex. 30:11-16
2 Kgs. 12:1-17
[2 Kgs. 11:17–12:17]
30 Shevat
19th February 2015
Rosh Chodesh Adar
ראש חודש אדר
[When a Hebrew month has 30 days Rosh Chodesh is traditionally celebrated over two days — the 30th of the old month and 1st of the new month.]
Num. 28:1-15
1 Adar
20th February 2015
Rosh Chodesh Adar
ראש חודש אדר
Num. 28:1-15
2 Adar
21st February 2015
Parashat Terumah
פרשת תרומה
Ex. 25:1–27:191 Kgs. 5:26–6:13
9 Adar
28th February 2015
Parashat Tetzaveh
Shabbat Zachor
פרשת תצוה, שבת זכור
Ex. 27:20–30:10   
maf. Deut. 25:17-19
1 Sam. 15:2-34   
[1 Sam. 15:1-34]
13 Adar
4th March 2015
Ta’anit Esther
[Fast of Esther]
erev Purim
תענית אסתר
[Minor Fast Day]
Ex. 32:11-14; 34:1-10 [am & pm]
Isa. 55:6–56:8 [pm]
[No Haftarah for Sephardim]
14 Adar
5th March 2015
Purim
פורים
Ex. 17:8-16
15 Adar
6th March 2015
Shushan Purim
שושן פורים
Shushan Purim is celebrated in Jerusalem and walled cities.  
16 Adar
7th March 2015
Parashat Ki Tisa
פרשת כי תשא
Ex. 30:11–34:35
1 Kgs. 18:1-39
[1 Kgs. 18:20-39]
23 Adar
14th March 2015
Parashat Vayakhel–Pekudei
Shabbat Parah
פרשת ויקהל-פקודי, שבת פרה
Ex. 35:1–40:38
maf. Num. 19:1-22
Ezek. 36:16-38
[Ezek. 36:16-36]
1 Nisan
21st March 2015
Parashat Vayikra
Shabbat HaChodesh
Rosh Chodesh Nisan
פרשת ויקרא, שבת החודש
Lev. 1:1–5:26
Num. 28:9-15  
maf. Ex. 12:1-20
Ezek. 45:16–46:18
[Ezek. 45:18–46:15]
8 Nisan
28th March 2015
Parashat Tzav
Shabbat HaGadol
פרשת צו, שבת הגדול
Lev. 6:1–8:36Mal. 3:4–24
14 Nisan
3rd April 2015
Ta’anit Bechorot
[Fast of the Firstborn]
erev Pesach
תענית בכורות‎ ,תענית בכורים
Fast Day [for the Firstborn]
Ex. 32:11–34:10
15 Nisan
4th April 2015
Pesach I
פסח שבת
Ex. 12:21-51
maf. Num. 28:16-25
Josh. 3:5-7; 5:2–6:1, 27
[Josh. 5:2–6:1, 27]
16 Nisan
5th April 2015
Pesach II
פסח ב׳
Lev. 22:26-23, 44
maf. Num. 28:16-25
2 Kgs. 23:1-9, 21-25
17 Nisan
6th April 2015
Pesach III
[Chol HaMoed I]
פסח ג׳, חל המועד א׳
Ex. 13:1-16
maf. Num. 28:19-25
18 Nisan
7th April 2015
Pesach IV
[Chol HaMoed II]
פסח ד׳, חל המועד ב׳
Ex. 22:24–23:19
maf. Num. 28:19-25
19 Nisan
8th April 2015
Pesach V
[Chol HaMoed III]
פסח ה׳, חל המועד ג׳
Ex. 34:1-26
maf. Num. 28:19-25
20 Nisan
9th April 2015
Pesach VI
[Chol HaMoed IV]
פסח ו׳, חל המועד ד׳
Num. 9:1-14
maf. Num. 28:19-25
21 Nisan
10th April 2015
Pesach VII
פסח ז׳
Ex. 13:17–15:26
maf. Num. 28:19-25
2 Sam. 22:1-51
22 Nisan
11th April 2015
Pesach VIII Shabbat
פסח ח׳, שבת
Deut. 14:22-16:17
maf. Num. 28:19-25
Isa. 10:32–12:6
27 Nisan
16th April 2015
Yom HaShoah
[Holocaust and Heroism Remembrance Day]
יום השואה, יום הזיכרון לשואה ולגבורה
29 Nisan
18th April 2015
Parashat Shemini
פרשת שמיני
Lev. 9:1–11:47
2 Sam. 6:1–7:17
[2 Sam. 6:1-19]
30 Nisan
19th April 2015
Rosh Chodesh Iyar
ראש חודש אייר
Num. 28:1-15
1 Iyar
20th April 2015
Rosh Chodesh Iyar
ראש חודש אייר
[When a Hebrew month has 30 days Rosh Chodesh is traditionally celebrated over two days — the 30th of the old month and 1st of the new month.]
Num. 28:1-15
3 Iyar
22nd April 2015
Yom HaZikaron
[Israeli Remembrance Day]
יום הזיכרון, יום הזיכרון לחללי מערכות ישראל ולנפגעי פעולות האיבה‎
[Israeli Fallen Soldiers and Victims of Terrorism Remembrance Day]
4 Iyar
23rd April 2015
Yom Ha’Atzmaut
[Israel Independence Day]
יום העצמאות‎
Deut. 7:12–8:18
Isa. 10:32–12:6
6 Iyar
25th April 2015
Parashat Tazria–Metzorah
פרשת תזריע-מצרע
Lev. 12:1–15:332 Kgs. 7:3-20
13 Iyar
2nd May 2015
Parashat Aharei Mot–Kedoshim
פרשת אחרי מות-קדשים
Lev. 16:1–20:27
Amos 9:7-15
[Ezek. 20:2-20]
14 Iyar
3rd May 2015
Pesach Sheini
פסח שני
Pesach Sheini is a special celebration of Passover which is celebrated exactly one month after Passover. Its historical purpose was to allow those who for special reason where not able to bring the Passover sacrifice on the correct date to have a second opportunity to do so. The celebration is mentioned in the Torah (Num. 9:1-14)
18 Iyar
7th May 2015
Lag Ba’Omer
[33rd Day in the Omer]
ל״ג בעומר
Lag B'Omer or Lag L'Omer is a holiday marking the 33rd day of the Counting of the Omer and falls on the 18th day of Iyar.
20 Iyar
9th May 2015
Parashat Emor
פרשת אמור
Lev. 21:1–24:23Ezek. 44:15-31
27 Iyar
16th May 2015
Parashat Behar–Behukotai
פרשת בהר-בחקתי
Lev. 25:1–27:34
Jer. 16:19–17:14
28 Iyar
17th May 2015
Yom Yerushalayim
[Jerusalem Day]
יום ירושלים‎
1 Sivan
19th May 2015
Rosh Chodesh Sivan
ראש חודש סיון
Num. 28:1-15
5 Sivan
23rd May 2015
Parashat Bamidbar
erev Shavuot
פרשת במדבר
Num. 1:1–4:20Hos. 2:1-22
6 Sivan
24th May 2015
Shavuot I
שבועות
Ex. 19:1–20:23
maf. Num. 28:26-31
Ezek. 1:1-28; 3:12
7 Sivan
25th May 2015
Shavuot II
שבועות
Deut. 15:19–16:17
maf. Num. 28:26-31
Hab. 3:1-19
[Hab. 2:20–3:19]
12 Sivan
30th May 2015
Parashat Naso
פרשת נשא
Num. 4:21–7:89Judg. 13:2-25
19 Sivan
6th June 2015
Parashat Beha'alotkha
פרשת בהעלתך
Num. 8:1–12:16
Zech. 2:14–4:7
26 Sivan
13th June 2015
Parashat Shelach Lekha
פרשת שלח־לך
Num. 13:1–15:41Josh. 2:1-24
30 Sivan
17th June 2015
Rosh Chodesh Tammuz
ראש חודש תמוז
[When a Hebrew month has 30 days Rosh Chodesh is traditionally celebrated over two days — the 30th of the old month and 1st of the new month.]
Num. 28:1-28
1 Tammuz
18th June 2015
Rosh Chodesh Tammuz
ראש חודש תמוז
Num. 28:1-28
3 Tammuz
20th June 2015
Parashat Korach
פרשת קורח
Num. 16:1–18:321 Sam. 11:14–12:22
10 Tammuz
27th June 2015
Parashat Chukat
פרשת חקת
Num. 19:1–22:1Judg. 11:1-33
17 Tammuz
4th July 2015
Parashat Balak
פרשת בלק
Num. 22:2–25:9Micah 5:6–6:8
18 Tammuz
5th July 2015
Tzom Tammuz
[17th Tammuz - Shiv'ah Asar b'Tammuz]
צום תמוז, שבעה עשר בתמוז‎
[Minor Fast Day]
Ex. 32:11-14; 34:1-10 [am & pm]
Isa. 55:6–56:8 [pm]
[No Haftarah for Sephardim]
24 Tammuz
11th July 2015
Parashat Pinchas
1st Haftarah Admonition
פרשת פינחס
Num. 25:10–30:1
1st Haftarah of Admonition
Jer. 1:1–2:3
1 Av
17th July 2015
Rosh Chodesh Av
ראש חודש אב
Num. 28:1-15
2 Av
18th July 2015
Parashat Matot–Masei
2nd Haftarah Admonition
פרשת מטות-מסעי
Num. 30:2–36:13
2nd Haftarah of Admonition
Jer. 2:4-28; 3:4
[Jer. 2:4-28; 4:1-2]
9 Av
25th July 2015
Parashat Devarim
[Sabbath of Vision]
Shabbat Chazon
3rd Haftarah Admonition
פרשת דברים, שבת חזון
Deut. 1:1–3:22
3rd Haftarah of Admonition
Isa. 1:1-27
9 Av
25th July 2015
erev Tisha B'Av
תשעה באב
The Book of Lamentations
[The Book of Job may be read also.]
10 Av
26th July 2015
Tisha B'Av
[The Ninth of Av]
ט׳ באב, תשעה באב‎
[Fast Day]
Deut. 4:25-40 [am]
Ex. 32:11-14; 34:1-10 [pm]
Jer. 8:13–9:23 [am]
Isa. 55:6-56:8 [pm]
[Hos. 14:2-10; Micah 7:18-20]
15 Av
31st July 2015
Tu B’Av
[The Fifteenth of Av]
ט"ו באב
[Minor Jewish Holiday]
16 Av
1st August 2015
Parashat Va’etchanan
Shabbat Nachamu
1st Haftarah Consolation
פרשת ואתחנן, שבת נחמו
Deut. 3:23–7:11
1st Haftarah of Consolation
Isa. 40:1-26
23 Av
8th August 2015
Parashat Ekev
2nd Haftarah Consolation
פרשת עקב
Deut. 7:12–11:25
2nd Haftarah of Consolation
Isa. 49:14–51:3
30 Av
15th August 2015
Parashat Re'eh
3rd Haftarah Consolation
Rosh Chodesh Elul
פרשת ראה, ראש חודש
[When a Hebrew month has 30 days Rosh Chodesh is traditionally celebrated over two days — the 30th of the old month and 1st of the new month.]
Deut. 11:26–16:17
maf. Num. 28:9-15
3rd Haftarah of Consolation
Isa. 54:11–55:5
[In some congregations,
Isa. 66:1-24]
1 Elul
16th August 2015
Rosh Chodesh Elul
ראש חודש אלול
In the Sephardic tradition, recital of Selichot in preparation for the High Holidays begins on the second day of the Hebrew month of Elul.
Num. 28:1-15
7 Elul
22nd August 2015
Parashat Shofetim
4th Haftarah Consolation
פרשת שופטים
Deut. 16:18–21:9
4th Haftarah of Consolation
Isa. 51:12–52:12
14 Elul
29th August 2015
Parashat Ki Tetze
5th Haftarah Consolation
פרשת כי-תצא
Deut. 21:10–25:19
5th Haftarah of Consolation
Isa. 54:1-10
21 Elul
5th September 2015
Parashat Ki Tavo
6th Haftarah Consolation
Shabbat Selichot [Ashkenazim]
פרשת כי-תבוא
Selichot prayers begin on the Saturday night before Rosh HaShanah for Ashkenazim. If, however, the first day of Rosh HaShanah falls on Monday or Tuesday, Selichot are said beginning the Saturday night prior.
Deut. 26:1–29:8
6th Haftarah of Consolation
Isa. 60:1-22
28 Elul
12th September 2015
Parashat Nitzavim
7th Haftarah Consolation
פרשת נצבים
Deut. 29:9–30:20
7th Haftarah of Consolation
Isa. 61:10–63:9
29 Elul
13th September 2015
Erev Rosh HaShanah
ערב ראש השנה
 

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A brief explanation of the Jewish cycle of readings

The Parashat Hashavuah—The Portion of the Week
The Jewish yearly cycle of Torah readings is divided into weekly portions. Each portion—in Hebrew, a parashah—is part of a sequential reading of the Torah [aka. The Five Books of Moses, The Chumash, or the Pentateuch] so that the whole of the Torah is read within a yearly cycle. [Some Jewish communities follow a Triennial Torah reading cycle.1]

In the table above the Parashat Hashavuah is listed with its accompanying Haftarah reading. The name of the parashah [portion] is taken from the first words of the parashah. There are 54 weekly portions—one for each year of the Jewish leap year. In non-leap years [50 weeks] portions are paired and read together.

The table above, beginning with Rosh Hashanah—the first day of the Jewish year—follows the Ashkenazic tradition for Torah and Haftarah readings and completes the entire reading cycle within one year. Communities who read the Parashat Hashavuah over three years will read a section from each parashah each week.

The Haftarah
The haftarah is a reading from the Prophets and adds a reflection to the parashah. While each parashah normally has its own accompanying haftarah reading, the haftarah reading also varies, during the year, according to special festivals or events. The word haftarah comes from the Hebrew root pey.tet.resh, meaning “concluding”, “parting” or “ending.”

The practice of adding a haftarah reading to the Torah portion is ancient and has obscure origins. The Talmud mentions the haftarah being read in the presence of Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus (c. 70 CE) and evidence from the New Testament indicates that the haftarah readings were a common practice. Acts 13:15 states, "After the reading from the Law and the Prophets the leaders of the synagogue sent word to them saying..."

Haftarah readings given in brackets in the above table indicate readings used in the Shephardic tradition where these differ from the Ashkenazic reading.

The Maftir
The word maftir, which belongs to the same Hebrew root as haftarah [pey.tet.resh] means “concluder” and refers to the last person called [i.e., the last Aliyah (aliyah, “to go up”)] to the Torah of the succession of readers at a Sabbath morning or holiday service. This person normally reads the haftarah. The maftir reading normally repeats the last words of the parashat hashavuah. This is according to an ancient custom which sort to honor the greater importance of the Torah over the Prophetic reading (Talmud, Megillah 23a). On special Sabbaths and holidays a special reading is added [provided in the table above] which is related to the celebration or event.

A Point of interest: The division of parashot [sometimes spelled and pronounced, Parshiot or Parshiyot: the plural of parashah] found in the modern-day Torah scrolls of all Jewish communities (Ashkenazic, Sephardic, and Yemenite) is based upon the systematic list provided by Maimonides in Mishneh Torah, Laws of Tefillin, Mezuzah and Torah Scrolls, Ch. 8. Maimonides based his division of the portions of the Torah on the Aleppo Codex.

1. The Triennial Torah Reading Cycle. In some traditions the cycle of Torah readings is completed over three years—this pattern is modelled on an ancient Rabbinic tradition in Israel [which may in fact be even older] in which each portion was divided into three parts, each part being read in sequence over the course of three years thus completing the reading of the five books of the Torah over three years. This practice has been revived in some Jewish congregations today.

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