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The Jewish Liturgical Calendar
Jewish Year, Beginning Rosh HaShanah 5773 [Civil Year 2012–2013]

The Jewish cycle of readings from the Torah and the Prophets
is central to the liturgical and religious life of Jews.
A brief explanation of the readings is outlined below. LINK
See Readings tables for Jewish Years: 5772 5773 5774 5775

Date Event Torah Maftir Haftarah
1 Tishrei
17th September 2012
Rosh HaShanah I
ראש השנה
Gen. 21:1-34
maf. Num. 29:1-6
1 Sam. 1:1–2:10
2 Tishrei
18th September 2012
Rosh HaShanah II
ראש השנה
Gen. 22:1-24
maf. Num. 29:1-6
Jer. 31:1-19
3 Tishrei
19th September 2012
Tzom Gedaliah
[Fast of Gedaliah]
יום גדליה
Fast Day
Ex. 32:11-14; 34:1-10 [am & pm]
Isa. 55:6–56:8 [pm]
[No Haftarah for Sephardim]
 
6 Tishrei
22nd September 2012
Parashat VaYelekh
Shabbat Shuvah
פרשת וילך, שבת שובה
Deut. 31:1-30
Hos. 14:2-10; Mic. 7:18-20; Joel 2:15-27
[Hos. 14:2-10; Mic. 7:18-20]
9 Tishrei
25th September 2012
Erev Yom Kippur
ערב יום הכיפור
10 Tishrei
26th September 2012
Yom Kippur
[Day of Atonement]
יום הכיפור, יום הכיפורים‎
Lev. 16:1-34 [am]  
Lev. 18:1-30 [pm]
maf. Num. 29:7-11
Isa. 57:14–58:14 [am]
Book of Jonah
Micah 7:18-20 [pm]
13 Tishrei
29th September 2012
Parashat Ha’azinu
פרשת האזינו
Deut. 32:1-522 Sam. 22:1-51
14 Tishrei
30th September 2012
Erev Sukkot
ערב סוכות
15 Tishrei
1st October 2012
Sukkot I
סוכות א׳
Lev. 22:26–23:44
maf. Num. 29:12-16
Zech. 14:1-21
16 Tishrei
2nd October 2012
Sukkot II
סוכות ב׳
Sukkot is celebrated over seven days [Eight in the Diaspora.] The first two days of Sukkot are a major holidays [Yom Tov] in the Diaspora and are followed by the Festival "weekdays" called Chol HaMoed. In Israel the Chol HaMoed begin on Sukkot Day II.
Lev. 22:26–23:44
maf. Num. 29:12-16
1 Kgs. 8:2-21
17 Tishrei
3rd October 2012
Sukkot III
[Chol HaMoed I]
סוכות ג׳, חל המועד א׳
Num. 29:17-25
18 Tishrei
4th October 2012
Sukkot IV
[Chol HaMoed II]
סוכות ד׳, חל המועד ב׳
Num. 29:20-28
19 Tishrei
5th October 2012
Sukkot V
[Chol HaMoed III]
סוכות ה׳, חל המועד ג׳
Num. 29:23-31
20 Tishrei
6th October 2012
Sukkot Shabbat
[Chol HaMoed IV]
סוכות שבת חל המועד
Ex. 33:12–34:26
maf. Num. 29:26-31
Ezek. 38:18–39:16
21 Tishrei
7th October 2012
Sukkot VII
[Hoshanah Rabbah]
סוכות ז׳ הושנא רבה
Num. 29:26-34
22 Tishrei
8th October 2012
Shemini Atzeret
שמיני עצרת
Deut. 14:22–16:17
maf. Num. 29:35–30:1
1 Kgs. 8:54-66
22 Tishrei
8th October 2012
erev Simchat Torah
ערב שמחת תורה
In most Jewish communities the Torah is read at night on Simhat Torah. [This is the only time when the Torah is read at night.] There are various customs regarding which Torah sections are read, although many select Vezot Haberachah, the last weekly portion on the Torah, omitting the last verses.
Deut. 33:1-17
[or 33:1-26]
Customs may vary.
23 Tishrei
9th October 2012
Simhat Torah
[Rejoicing in the Torah]
שמחת תורה
Simchat Torah is a celebration marking the conclusion of the annual cycle of public Torah readings and the beginning of a new cycle. In Israel, Simhat Torah and Shemini Atzeret are celebrated on the same day.
Deut. 33:1–34:12
Gen. 1:1–2:3
maf. Num. 29:35–30:1
Josh. 1:1-18   
[Josh. 1:1-9]
27 Tishrei
13th October 2012
Parashat Bereshit
פרשת בראשית
Gen. 1:1–6:8
Isa. 42:5–43:10
[Isa. 42:5-21]
30 Tishrei
16th October 2012
Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan
ראש חודש חשון
Num. 28:1-15
1 Cheshvan
17th October 2012
Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan
ראש חודש חשון
Num. 28:1-15
4 Cheshvan
20th October 2012
Parashat Noach
פרשת נח
Gen. 6:9–11:32
Isa. 54:1–55:5
[Isa. 54:1-10]
11 Cheshvan
27th October 2012
Parashat Lekh Lekha
פרשת לך-לך
Gen. 12:1–17:27Isa. 40:27–41:16
18 Cheshvan
3rd November 2012
Parashat Vayera
פרשת וירא
Gen. 18:1–22:24
2 Kgs. 4:1-37
[2 Kgs. 4:1-23]
25 Cheshvan
10th November 2012
Parashat Chayei Sarah
פרשת חיי שרה
Gen. 23:1–25:18
1 Kgs. 1:1-31
1 Kislev
15th November 2012
Rosh Chodesh Kislev
ראש חודש כסלו
Num. 28:1-15
3 Kislev
17th November 2012
Parashat Toledot
פרשת תולדות
Gen. 25:19–28:9Mal. 1:1–2:7
10 Kislev
24th November 2012
Parashat Vayetze
פרשת ויצא
Gen. 28:10–32:3
Hos. 12:13–14:10   
Opt. subst. Mic. 7:18
[Hos. 11:7–12:12]
17 Kislev
1st December 2012
Parashat Vayishlach
פרשת וישלח
Gen. 32:4–36:43
Obad. 1:1-21   
Opt. Hos. 11:7–12:12
[Obad. 1:1-21]
24 Kislev
8th December 2012
Parashat Vayeshev
erev Chanukah
פרשת וישב
Gen. 37:1–40:23Amos 2:6–3:8
25 Kislev
9th December 2012
Chanukah I
חנוכה א׳
Num. 7:1-17
26 Kislev
10th December 2012
Chanukah II
חנוכה ב׳
Num. 7:18-29
27 Kislev
11th December 2012
Chanukah III
חנוכה ג׳
Num. 7:24-35
28 Kislev
12th December 2012
Chanukah IV
חנוכה ד׳
Num. 7:30-41
29 Kislev
13th December 2012
Chanukah V
חנוכה ה׳
Num. 7:36-47
1 Tevet
14th December 2012
Chanukah VI
Rosh Chodesh Tevet
חנוכה ו׳, ראש חודש טבת
Num. 28:1-15
maf. Num. 7:42-47
2 Tevet
15th December 2012
Parashat Miketz
Shabbat Chanukah
פרשת מקץ חנוכה
Gen. 41:1–44:17   
maf. Num. 7:48-53
Zech. 2:14–4:7
3 Tevet
16th December 2012
Chanukah VIII
חנוכה ט׳
Num. 7:54–8:4
9 Tevet
22nd December 2012
Parashat Vayigash
פרשת ויגש
Gen. 44:18–47:27Ezek. 37:15-28
10 Tevet
23rd December 2012
Asara B’Tevet
[The Tenth of Tevet]
עשרה בטבת‎
[Minor Fast Day]
Ex. 32:11-14; 34:1-10
Isa. 55:6–56:8 [pm]
[No haftarah for Sephardim]
16 Tevet
29th December 2012
Parashat Vayechi
פרשת ויחי
Gen. 47:28–50:261 Kgs. 2:1-12
23 Tevet
5th January 2013
Parashat Shemot
פרשת שמות
Ex. 1:1–6:1
Isa. 27:6–28:13; 29:22-23
[Jer. 1:1–2:3]
1 Sh'vat
12th January 2013
Parashat Vaera
Rosh Chodesh Shevat
פרשת וארא, ראש חודש שבט
Ex. 6:2–9:35
maf. Num. 28:9-15
Isa. 66:1-24
8 Sh'vat
19th January 2013
Parashat Bo
פרשת בא
Ex. 10:1–13:16Jer. 46:13-28
15 Sh'vat
26th January 2013
Tu B’Shvat
[The Fifteenth of Sh'vat]
New Year for Trees
ט״ו בשבט‎; ראש השנה לאילנות
[Minor Jewish Holiday]
15 Sh'vat
26th January 2013
Parashat Beshalach
Tu B’Shvat
פרשת בשלח
Ex. 13:17–17:16
Judg. 4:4–5:31
[Judg. 5:1-31]
22 Sh'vat
2nd February 2013
Parashat Yitro
פרשת יתרו
Ex. 18:1–20:23
Isa. 6:1–7:6; 9:5-6
[Isa. 6:1-13]
29 Sh'vat
9th February 2013
Parashat Mishpatim
Shabbat Shekalim
פרשת משפטים, שבת שקלים שבת מחר חודש
Shabbat Shekalim falls on the Shabbat before the 1st of Adar (or on 1st of Adar itself if this day is Shabbat.) [In leap years Shabbat Shekalim falls in Adar II.] This year, because the day falls on the day before Rosh Chodesh, some congregations will add the first and last verses of the special haftarah for Machar Chodesh to the haftarah.
Ex. 21:1–24:18
maf. Ex. 30:11-16
2 Kgs. 12:1-17
[2 Kgs. 11:17–12:17]
Some congregations add 1 Sam. 20:18, 42 for Machar Chodesh.
30 Sh'vat
10th February 2013
Rosh Chodesh Adar
ראש חודש אדר
Num. 28:1-15
1 Adar
11th February 2013
Rosh Chodesh Adar
ראש חודש אדר
Num. 28:1-15
6 Adar
16th February 2013
Parashat Terumah
פרשת תרומה
Ex. 25:1–27:191 Kgs. 5:26–6:13
11 Adar
21st February 2013
Ta’anit Esther
[Fast of Esther]
תענית אסתר
[Minor Fast Day]
Ex. 32:11-14; 34:1-10 [am & pm]
Isa. 55:6–56:8 [pm]
[No Haftarah for Sephardim]
13 Adar
23rd February 2013
Parashat Tetzaveh
Shabbat Zachor
erev Purim
פרשת תצוה, שבת זכור
Ex. 27:20–30:10   
maf. Deut. 25:17-19
1 Sam. 15:2-34   
[1 Sam. 15:1-34]
14 Adar
24th February 2013
Purim
פורים
Ex. 17:8-16
15 Adar
25th February 2013
Shushan Purim
שושן פורים
Shushan Purim is celebrated in Jerusalem and walled cities.  
20 Adar
2nd March 2013
Parashat Ki Tisa
פרשת כי תשא
Ex. 30:11–34:35
1 Kgs. 18:1-39
[1 Kgs. 18:20-39]
27 Adar
9th March 2013
Parashat Vayakhel–Pekudei
Shabbat HaChodesh
פרשת ויקהל-פקודי, שבת החודש
Ex. 35:1–40:38
maf. Ex. 12:1-20
Ezek. 45:16–46:18
[Ezek. 45:16–46:15]
1 Nisan
12th March 2013
Rosh Chodesh Nisan
ראש חודש ניסן
Num. 28:1-15
5 Nisan
16th March 2013
Parashat Vayikra
פרשת ויקרא
Lev. 1:1–5:26Isa. 43:21–44:23
12 Nisan
23rd March 2013
Parashat Tzav
Shabbat HaGadol
פרשת צו, שבת הגדול
Lev. 6:1–8:36Mal. 3:4–24
14 Nisan
25th March 2013
Ta’anit Bechorot
[Fast of the Firstborn]
erev Pesach
תענית בכורות‎ ,תענית בכורים
Fast Day [for the Firstborn]
Ex. 32:11–34:10
15 Nisan
26th March 2013
Pesach I
פסח א׳
Ex. 12:21-51
maf. Num. 28:16-25
Josh. 3:5-7; 5:2–6:1, 27
[Josh. 5:2–6:1, 27]
16 Nisan
27th March 2013
Pesach II
פסח ב׳
Lev. 22:26-23, 44
maf. Num. 28:16-25
2 Kgs. 23:1-9, 21-25
17 Nisan
28th March 2013
Pesach III
[Chol HaMoed I]
פסח ג׳, חל המועד א׳
Ex. 13:1-16
maf. Num. 28:19-25
18 Nisan
29th March 2013
Pesach IV
[Chol HaMoed II]
פסח ד׳, חל המועד ב׳
Ex. 22:24–23:19
maf. Num. 28:19-25
19 Nisan
30th March 2013
Pesach Shabbat
[Chol HaMoed]
פסח שבת, חל המועד
Ex. 33:12–34:26
maf. Num. 28:19-25
Ezek. 37:1-14
[Ezek. 36:37–37:14]
20 Nisan
31st March 2013
Pesach VI
[Chol HaMoed IV]
פסח ו׳, חל המועד ד׳
Num. 9:1-14
maf. Num. 28:19-25
21 Nisan
1st April 2013
Pesach VII
פסח ז׳
Ex. 13:17–15:26
maf. Num. 28:19-25
2 Sam. 22:1-51
22 Nisan
2nd April 2013
Pesach VIII
פסח ח׳
Deut. 15:19–16:17
maf. Num. 28:19-25
Isa. 10:32–12:6
26 Nisan
6th April 2013
Parashat Shemini
פרשת שמיני
Lev. 9:1–11:47
2 Sam. 6:1–7:17
[2 Sam. 6:1-19]
28 Nisan
8th April 2013
Yom HaShoah
[Holocaust and Heroism Remembrance Day]
יום השואה, יום הזיכרון לשואה ולגבורה
[Yom HaShoah is normally held on the 27th of Nisan. When the 27th Nisan falls adjacent to Shabbat, the date is shifted by one day.]
30 Nisan
10th April 2013
Rosh Chodesh Iyar
ראש חודש אייר
Num. 28:1-15
1 Iyar
11th April 2013
Rosh Chodesh Iyar
ראש חודש אייר
Num. 28:1-15
3 Iyar
13th April 2013
Parashat Tazria-Metzorah
פרשת תזריע-מצרע
Lev. 12:1–15:332 Kgs. 7:3-20
5 Iyar
15th April 2013
Yom HaZikaron
[Israeli Fallen Soldiers and Victims of Terrorism Remembrance Day.]
יום הזיכרון, יום הזיכרון לחללי מערכות ישראל ולנפגעי פעולות האיבה‎
[Yom HaZikaron is normally held on the 4th of Iyar. When the observance of Yom HaZikaron (or Yom HaAtzma'ut which always follows it) conflicts with Shabbat, the date is moved, being either earlier or posponed.]
6 Iyar
16th April 2013
Yom Ha’Atzmaut
[Israel Independence Day]
יום העצמאות‎
[Yom HaAtzma'ut is normally held on the 5th of Iyar. When the observance of Yom HaAtzma'ut (or Yom HaZikaron which always precedes it) conflicts with Shabbat, the date may be moved either earlier, or posponed.]
Deut. 7:12–8:18
Isa. 10:32–12:6
10 Iyar
20th April 2013
Parashat Aharei Mot-Kedoshim
פרשת אחרי מות-קדשים
Lev. 16:1–20:27
Amos 9:7-15
[Ezek. 20:2-20]
14 Iyar
24th April 2013
Pesach Sheini
פסח שני
Pesach Sheini is a special celebration of Passover which is celebrated exactly one month after Passover. Its historical purpose was to allow those who for special reason where not able to bring the Passover sacrifice on the correct date to have a second opportunity to do so. The celebration is mentioned in the Torah (Num. 9:1-14)
17 Iyar
27th April 2013
Parashat Emor
פרשת אמור
Lev. 21:1–24:23Ezek. 44:15-31
18 Iyar
28th April 2013
Lag Ba’Omer
[33rd Day in the Omer]
ל״ג בעומר
Lag B'Omer or Lag L'Omer is a holiday marking the 33rd day of the Counting of the Omer and falls on the 18th day of Iyar.
24 Iyar
4th May 2013
Parashat Behar-Behukotai
פרשת בהר-בחקתי
Lev. 25:1–27:34
Jer. 16:19–17:14
28 Iyar
8th May 2013
Yom Yerushalayim
[Jerusalem Day]
יום ירושלים‎
1 Sivan
10th May 2013
Rosh Chodesh Sivan
ראש חודש סיון
Num. 28:1-15
2 Sivan
11th May 2013
Parashat Bamidbar
פרשת במדבר
Num. 1:1–4:20Hos. 2:1-22
6 Sivan
15th May 2013
Shavuot I
שבועות
Ex. 19:1–20:23
maf. Num. 28:26-31
Ezek. 1:1-28; 3:12
7 Sivan
16th May 2013
Shavuot II
שבועות
Deut. 15:19–16:17
maf. Num. 28:26-31
Hab. 3:1-19
[Hab. 2:20–3:19]
9 Sivan
18th May 2013
Parashat Naso
פרשת נשא
Num. 4:21–7:89Judg. 13:2-25
16 Sivan
25th May 2013
Parashat Beha'alotkha
פרשת בהעלתך
Num. 8:1–12:16
Zech. 2:14–4:7
23 Sivan
1st June 2013
Parashat Shelach Lekha
פרשת שלח־לך
Num. 13:1–15:41Josh. 2:1-24
30 Sivan
8th June 2013
Parashat Korach
Rosh Chodesh Tammuz
פרשת קורח, ראש חודש
[In some congregations the 30th day of the month is not observed as Rosh Chodesh. In this case when the 30th day falls out on Shabbat, the Haftarah reading for Machar Chodesh (1 Sam. 20:18-42) is read instead of the reading for Shabbat Rosh Chodesh.]
Num. 16:1–18:32
maf. Num. 28:9-15
Isa. 66:1-24
1 Tammuz
9th June 2013
Rosh Chodesh Tammuz
ראש חודש תמוז
Num. 28:1-28
7 Tammuz
15th June 2013
Parashat Chukat
פרשת חקת
Num. 19:1–22:1Judg. 11:1-33
14 Tammuz
22nd June 2013
Parashat Balak
פרשת בלק
Num. 22:2–25:9Micah 5:6–6:8
17 Tammuz
25th June 2013
Tzom Tammuz
[17th Tammuz - Shiv'ah Asar b'Tammuz]
צום תמוז, שבעה עשר בתמוז‎
[Minor Fast Day]
Ex. 32:11-14; 34:1-10 [am & pm]
Isa. 55:6–56:8 [pm]
[No Haftarah for Sephardim]
21 Tammuz
29th June 2013
Parashat Pinchas
1st Haftarah Admonition
פרשת פינחס
Num. 25:10–30:1
1st Haftarah of Admonition
Jer. 1:1–2:3
28 Tammuz
6th July 2013
Parashat Matot-Masei
2nd Haftarah Admonition
פרשת מטות-מסעי
Num. 30:2–36:13
2nd Haftarah of Admonition
Jer. 2:4-28; 3:4
[Jer. 2:4-28; 4:1-2]
1 Av
8th July 2013
Rosh Chodesh Av
ראש חודש אב
Num. 28:1-15
6 Av
13th July 2013
Parashat Devarim
[Sabbath of Vision]
Shabbat Chazon
3rd Haftarah Admonition
פרשת דברים, שבת חזון
Deut. 1:1–3:22
3rd Haftarah of Admonition
Isa. 1:1-27
8 Av
15th July 2013
erev Tisha B'Av
תשעה באב
The Book of Lamentations
[The Book of Job may be read also.]
9 Av
16th July 2013
Tisha B'Av
[The Ninth of Av]
ט׳ באב, תשעה באב‎
[Fast Day]
Deut. 4:25-40 [am]
Ex. 32:11-14; 34:1-10 [pm]
Jer. 8:13–9:23 [am]
Isa. 55:6-56:8 [pm]
[Hos. 14:2-10; Micah 7:18-20]
13 Av
20th July 2013
Parashat Va’etchanan
Shabbat Nachamu
1st Haftarah Consolation
פרשת ואתחנן, שבת נחמו
Deut. 3:23–7:11
1st Haftarah of Consolation
Isa. 40:1-26
15 Av
22nd July 2013
Tu B’Av
[The Fifteenth of Av]
ט"ו באב
[Minor Jewish Holiday]
20 Av
27th July 2013
Parashat Ekev
2nd Haftarah Consolation
פרשת עקב
Deut. 7:12–11:25
2nd Haftarah of Consolation
Isa. 49:14–51:3
27 Av
3rd August 2013
Parashat Re'eh
3rd Haftarah Consolation
פרשת ראה
Deut. 11:26–16:17
3rd Haftarah of Consolation
Isa. 54:11–55:5
30 Av
6th August 2013
Rosh Chodesh Elul
ראש חודש אלול
In the Sephardic tradition, recital of Selichot in preparation for the High Holidays begins on the second day of the Hebrew month of Elul.
Num. 28:1-15
1 Elul
7th August 2013
Rosh Chodesh Elul
ראש חודש אלול
In the Sephardic tradition, recital of Selichot in preparation for the High Holidays begins on the second day of the Hebrew month of Elul.
Num. 28:1-15
4 Elul
10th August 2013
Parashat Shofetim
4th Haftarah Consolation
פרשת שופטים
Deut. 16:18–21:9
4th Haftarah of Consolation
Isa. 51:12–52:12
11 Elul
17th August 2013
Parashat Ki Tetze
5th Haftarah Consolation
פרשת כי-תצא
Deut. 21:10–25:19
5th Haftarah of Consolation
Isa. 54:1-10
18 Elul
24th August 2013
Parashat Ki Tavo
6th Haftarah Consolation
פרשת כי-תבוא
Deut. 26:1–29:8
6th Haftarah of Consolation
Isa. 60:1-22
25 Elul
31st August 2013
Parashat Nitzavim-VaYelekh
7th Haftarah Consolation
Shabbat Selichot [Ashkenazim]
פרשת נצבים-וילך
Selichot prayers begin on the Saturday night before Rosh HaShanah for Ashkenazim. If, however, the first day of Rosh HaShanah falls on Monday or Tuesday, Selichot are said beginning the Saturday night prior.
Deut. 29:9–31:30Isa. 61:10–63:9
29 Elul
4th September 2013
erev Rosh HaShanah
ערב ראש השנה
 

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A brief explanation of the Jewish cycle of readings

The Parashat Hashavuah—The Portion of the Week
The Jewish yearly cycle of Torah readings is divided into weekly portions. Each portion—in Hebrew, a parashah—is part of a sequential reading of the Torah [aka. The Five Books of Moses, The Chumash, or the Pentateuch] so that the whole of the Torah is read within a yearly cycle. [Some Jewish communities follow a Triennial Torah reading cycle.1]

In the table above the Parashat Hashavuah is listed with its accompanying Haftarah reading. The name of the parashah [portion] is taken from the first words of the parashah. There are 54 weekly portions—one for each year of the Jewish leap year. In non-leap years [50 weeks] portions are paired and read together.

The table above, beginning with Rosh Hashanah—the first day of the Jewish year—follows the Ashkenazic tradition for Torah and Haftarah readings and completes the entire reading cycle within one year. Communities who read the Parashat Hashavuah over three years will read a section from each parashah each week.

The Haftarah
The haftarah is a reading from the Prophets and adds a reflection to the parashah. While each parashah normally has its own accompanying haftarah reading, the haftarah reading also varies, during the year, according to special festivals or events. The word haftarah comes from the Hebrew root pey.tet.resh, meaning “concluding”, “parting” or “ending.”

The practice of adding a haftarah reading to the Torah portion is ancient and has obscure origins. The Talmud mentions the haftarah being read in the presence of Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus (c. 70 CE) and evidence from the New Testament indicates that the haftarah readings were a common practice. Acts 13:15 states, "After the reading from the Law and the Prophets the leaders of the synagogue sent word to them saying..."

Haftarah readings given in brackets in the above table indicate readings used in the Shephardic tradition where these differ from the Ashkenazic reading.

The Maftir
The word maftir, which belongs to the same Hebrew root as haftarah [pey.tet.resh] means “concluder” and refers to the last person called [i.e., the last Aliyah (aliyah, “to go up”)] to the Torah of the succession of readers at a Sabbath morning or holiday service. This person normally reads the haftarah. The maftir reading normally repeats the last words of the parashat hashavuah. This is according to an ancient custom which sort to honor the greater importance of the Torah over the Prophetic reading (Talmud, Megillah 23a). On special Sabbaths and holidays a special reading is added [provided in the table above] which is related to the celebration or event.

A Point of interest: The division of parashot [sometimes spelled and pronounced, Parshiot or Parshiyot: the plural of parashah] found in the modern-day Torah scrolls of all Jewish communities (Ashkenazic, Sephardic, and Yemenite) is based upon the systematic list provided by Maimonides in Mishneh Torah, Laws of Tefillin, Mezuzah and Torah Scrolls, Ch. 8. Maimonides based his division of the portions of the Torah on the Aleppo Codex.

1. The Triennial Torah Reading Cycle. In some traditions the cycle of Torah readings is completed over three years—this pattern is modelled on an ancient Rabbinic tradition in Israel [which may in fact be even older] in which each portion was divided into three parts, each part being read in sequence over the course of three years thus completing the reading of the five books of the Torah over three years. This practice has been revived in some Jewish congregations today.

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